Where is the very first Soviet Khrushchev and why it will not demolish
In the late 1950s, simple and fast-built five-story buildings, which later received the nickname “Khrushchev”, were called the houses of the future. In the eyes of the architects, and the first tenants, it was progressive, modern, comfortable. Now these buildings are fading in the wake of the Khrushchev era that has sunk into oblivion. But what is surprising: in spite of the actively started renovation program, in Moscow, not far from the Akademicheskaya metro station, the very first Khrushchev in the country has survived.
Low-rise building in the 9th quarter of Novy Cheryomushki (now it belongs to the Academic District of Moscow), which received the address “Grimau Street, 16”, was the first experimental house of the future “testing ground” of new-type residential buildings. They were erected in the framework of the fateful decision of the Council of Ministers of the USSR “On the elimination of excesses in architecture”, which were crucial for Soviet urban planning. The project of the experimental quarter and, in particular, this house was developed by a team of architects led by Nathan Osterman.
All samples are one block away.
In the 9th quarter, several types of houses were built almost simultaneously – block, panel, and brick. Not only the material, but even their layout was different, but all of them were similar to each other in brevity and simplicity.
Subsequently, on the basis of these “multi-format” houses, the architects developed a series of five-story buildings (we all know very well), but not copying the first trial buildings, but improving them. For example, the house on Grimau, 16 is considered a prototype of series II-07 and 1-510. Only the floors at the very first Khrushchev only four (the fifth floor to the houses of the new type of architects decided to add later, modifying their project).
After in 1957, the first Khrushchev, as well as its neighbors, accepted new settlers, the apartment owners for the whole year became essentially architects for the architects rabbits. The city planners observed the life and life of the Muscovites who had settled in the houses, specifying in what way they feel uncomfortable in order to select the most successful house designs. The number of buildings that have become prototypes of the future model low-rise buildings, as already mentioned, included in the first place a house on Grimau, 16.
Local apartments were considered mansions
The historic building in Novye Cheryomushki is a typical panel Khrushchev with standard apartment parameters: the kitchen is slightly less than five meters in size, the ceiling is 2.6 m high, and the bathroom is combined.
One of the main principles of the new multi-apartment housing project for Soviet citizens was savings (financial costs, material used, living space, etc.). Therefore, the low height of the ceilings in this house and the subsequent erected five-story buildings is not accidental. It was believed that it was not difficult for a Soviet citizen to walk on the top floor in such a house (not so much as in “Stalinkas” with their enormous flights of stairs!), And therefore the need to make elevators in such houses disappears by itself.
The first residents of the experimental house were Muscovites who were resettled here from the center and who needed to improve their living conditions. For example, among others, large families from the Tagansky District received apartments, previously huddled in the rooms of the basement and basement floors. The apartments in the new house seemed to them like real mansions, so they were happy to move, even despite the distance of the New Cheryomushki from the center. The feeling of celebration and grandeur was added by a big gorgeous fountain built in front of the house.
In the new and still deserted quarter, the first tenants immediately planted many fruit trees and shrubs. After 5-10 years the area turned green. It was possible to leave the house and collect mountain ash, apples, plums, currants. Alas, in recent years, old trees began to hurt and die out, because the ecology of the city is now different from the one that was 50-60 years ago.